The following is a brief excerpt of the requirements of the ISO 14001:2015 requirements:
Achieving a balance bet ween the environment, society and the economy is considered essential to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
Sustainable development as a goal is achieved by balancing the three pillars of sustainability.
Societal expectations for sustainable development, transparency and accountability have evolved with increasingly stringent legislation, growing pressures on the environment from pollution, inefficient use of resources, improper waste management, climate change, degradation of ecosystems and loss of biodiversity.
This has led organizations to adopt a systematic approach to environmental management by implementing environmental management systems with the aim of contributing to the environmental pillar of sustainability.
0.2 Aim of an environmental management system
The purpose of this International Standard is to provide organizations with a framework to protect the environment and respond to changing environmental conditions in balance with socio-economic needs. It specifies requirements that enable an organization to achieve the intended outcomes it sets for its environmental management system.
A systematic approach to environmental management can provide top management with information to build success over the long term and create options for contributing to sustainable development by:
— protecting the environment by preventing or mitigating adverse environmental impacts;
— mitigating the potential adverse effect of environmental conditions on the organization;
— assisting the organization in the fulfilment of compliance obligations;
— enhancing environmental performance;
— controlling or influencing the way the organization’s products and services are designed, manufactured, distributed, consumed and disposed by using a life cycle perspective that can prevent environmental impacts from being unintentionally shifted elsewhere within the life cycle;
— achieving financial and operational benefits that can result from implementing environmentally
sound alternatives that strengthen the organization’s market position;
— communicating environmental information to relevant interested parties.
This International Standard, like other International Standards, is not intended to increase or change an organization’s legal requirements.
0.3 Success factors
The success of an environmental management system depends on commitment from all levels and functions of the organization, led by top management. Organizations can leverage opportunities to prevent or mitigate adverse environmental impacts and enhance beneficial environmental impacts, particularly those with strategic and competitive implications. Top management can effectively address its risks and opportunities by integrating environmental management into the organization’s business processes, strategic direction and decision making, aligning them with other business priorities, and incorporating environmental governance into its overall management system. Demonstration of successful implementation of this International Standard can be used to assure interested parties that an effective environmental management system is in place.
Adoption of this International Standard, however, will not in itself guarantee optimal environmental outcomes. Application of this International Standard can differ from one organization to another due to the context of the organization. Two organizations can carry out similar activities but can have different compliance obligations, commitment s in their environmental policy, environmental technologies and environmental performance goals, yet both can conform to the requirements of this International Standard.
The level of detail and complexity of the environmental management system will vary depending on the context of the organization, the scope of its environmental management system, its compliance obligations, and the nature of its activities, products and services, including its environmental aspects and associated environmental impacts.
0.4 Plan-Do-Check-Act model
The basis for the approach underlying an environmental management system is founded on the concept of Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA). The PDCA model provides an iterative process used by organizations to achieve continual improvement. It can be applied to an environmental management system and to each of its individual elements. It can be brief ly described as follows.
— Plan: establish environmental objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance
with the organization’s environmental policy.
— Do: implement the processes as planned.
— Check: monitor and measure processes against the environmental policy, including its commitments, environmental objectives and operating criteria, and report the results.
— Act: take actions to continually improve.
0.5 Contents of this International Standard
This International Standard conforms to ISO’s requirements for management system standards.
These requirements include a high level structure, identical core text, and common terms with core definitions, designed to benefit users implementing multiple ISO management system standards.
This International Standard does not include requirements specific to other management systems, such as those for quality, occupational health and safety, energy or financial management. However, this International Standard enables an organization to use a common approach and risk-based thinking to integrate its environmental management system with the requirements of other management systems.
This International Standard contains the requirements used to assess conformity. An organization that wishes to demonstrate conformity with this International Standard can do so by:
— making a self-determination and self-declaration, or
— seeking confirmation of its conformance by parties having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or
— seeking confirmation of its self-declaration by a part y external to the organization, or
— seeking certification/registration of its environmental management system by an external organization.
Annex A provides explanatory information to prevent misinterpretation of the requirement s of this
International Standard. Annex B shows broad technical correspondence between the previous edition of this International Standard and this edition. Implementation guidance on environmental management systems is included in ISO 14004.
In this International Standard, the following verbal forms are used:
— “shall” indicates a requirement;
— “should” indicates a recommendation;
— “may” indicates a permission;
— “can” indicates a possibility or a capability.
Information marked as “NOTE” is intended to assist the understanding or use of the document. “Notes to entry” used in Clause 3 provide additional information that supplements the terminological data and can contain provisions relating to the use of a term.
The terms and definitions in Clause 3 are arranged in conceptual order, with an alphabetical index provided at the end of the document.
Environmental management systems — Requirements with guidance for use
This International Standard specifies the requirements for an environmental management system that an organization can use to enhance its environmental performance. This International Standard is intended for use by an organization seeking to manage its environmental responsibilities in a systematic manner that contributes to the environmental pillar of sustainability.
This International Standard helps an organization achieve the intended outcomes of its environmental management system, which provide value for the environment, the organization itself and interested parties. Consistent with the organization’s environmental policy, the intended outcomes of an environment al management system includes:
— enhancement of environmental performance;
— fulfilment of compliance obligations;
— achievement of environmental objectives.
This International Standard is applicable to any organization, regardless of size, type and nature,
and applies to the environmental aspects of its activities, products and services that the organization determines it can either control or influence considering a life cycle perspective. This International Standard does not state specific environmental performance criteria.
This International Standard can be used in whole or in part to systematically improve environmental management. Claims of conformity to this International Standard, however, are not acceptable unless all its requirements are incorporated into an organization’s environmental management system and fulfilled without exclusion.
3.0 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1 Terms related to organization and leadership
set of interrelated or interacting elements of an organization (3.1.4) to establish policies and objectives (3.2.5) and processes (3.3.5) to achieve those objectives
Note 1 to entry: A management system can address a single discipline or several disciplines (e.g. quality, environment, occupational health and safety, energy, financial management).
Note 2 to entry: The system elements include the organization’s structure, roles and responsibilities, planning and operation, performance evaluation and improvement.
Note 3 to entry: The scope of a management system can include the whole of the organization, specific and
identified functions of the organization, specific and identified sections of the organization, or one or more functions across a group of organizations
environmental management system
part of the management system (3.1.1) used to manage environmental aspects (3.2.2), fulfil compliance obligations (3. 2.9), and address risks and opportunities (3. 2.11)
intentions and direction of an organization (3.1.4) related to environmental performance (3.4.11), as
formally expressed by its top management (3.1.5)
person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships to achieve its objectives (3.2.5)
Note 1 to entry: The concept of organization includes, but is not limited to sole-trader, company, corporation, firm, enterprise, authority, partnership, charity or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private.
person or group of people who directs and controls an organization (3.1.4) at the highest level
Note 1 to entry: Top management has the power to delegate authority and provide resources within the organization.
Note 2 to entry: If the scope of the management system (3.1.1) covers only part of an organization, then top management refers to those who direct and control that part of the organization.
person or organization (3.1.4) that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision or activity
EXAMPLE Customers, communities, suppliers, regulators, non-governmental organizations, investors and employees.
Note 1 to entry: To “perceive itself to be affected” means the perception has been made known to the organization.
3.2 Terms related to planning
surroundings in which an organization (3.1.4) operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora, fauna, humans and their interrelationships
Note 1 to entry: Surroundings can extend from within an organization to the local, regional and global system.
Note 2 to entry: Surroundings can be described in terms of biodiversity, ecosystems, climate or other characteristics.
element of an organization’s (3.1.4) activities or products or services that interacts or can interact with the environment (3.2.1)
Note 1 to entry: An environmental aspect can cause (an) environmental impact(s) (3.2.4). A significant environmental aspect is one that has or can have one or more significant environmental impact(s).
Note 2 to entry: Significant environmental aspects are determined by the organization applying one or more criteria.
state or characteristic of the environment (3.2.1) as determined at a certain point in time
change to the environment (3.2.1), whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an organization’s (3.1.4) environmental aspects (3.2.2)
result to be achieved
Note 1 to entry: An objective can be strategic, tactical, or operational.
Note 2 to entry: Objectives can relate to different disciplines (such as financial, health and safety, and environmental goals) and can apply at different levels (such as strategic, organization-wide, project, product,service and process (3.3.5)).
Note 3 to entry: An objective can be expressed in other ways, e.g. as an intended outcome, a purpose, an operational criterion, as an environmental objective (3.2.6), or by the use of other words with similar meaning (e.g. aim, goal, or target).
objective (3.2.5) set by the organization (3.1.4) consistent with its environmental policy (3.1.3)
prevention of pollution
use of processes (3.3.5), practices, techniques, materials, products, services or energy to avoid, reduce or control (separately or in combination) the creation, emission or discharge of any type of pollutant or waste, in order to reduce adverse environmental impacts (3.2.4)
Note 1 to entry: Prevention of pollution can include source reduction or elimination; process, product or service changes; efficient use of resources; material and energy substitution; reuse; recovery; recycling, reclamation; or treatment.
need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory
Note 1 to entry: “Generally implied” means that it is custom or common practice for the organization (3.1.4) and interested parties (3.1.6) that the need or expectation under consideration is implied.
Note 2 to entry: A specified requirement is one that is stated, for example in documented information (3.3.2).
Note 3 to entry: Requirements other than legal requirements become obligatory when the organization decides to comply with them.
compliance obligations (preferred term)
legal requirements and other requirements (admitted term)
legal requirements (3.2.8) that an organization (3.1.4) has to comply with and other requirements that an organization has to or chooses to comply with
Note 1 to entry: Compliance obligations are related to the environmental management system (3.1.2).
Note 2 to entry: Compliance obligations can arise from mandatory requirements, such as applicable laws and regulations, or voluntary commitments, such as organizational and industry standards, contractual relationships, codes of practice and agreements with community groups or non-governmental organizations.
effect of uncertainty
Note 1 to entry: An effect is a deviation from the expected — positive or negative.
Note 2 to entry: Uncertainty is the state, even partial, of deficiency of information related to, understanding or
knowledge of, an event, its consequence, or likelihood.
Note 3 to entry: Risk is often characterized by reference to potential “events” (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 188.8.131.52) and “consequences” (as defined in ISO Guide 73:2009, 3.6.1. 3), or a combination of these.
Note 4 to entry: Risk is often expressed in terms of a combination of the consequences of an event (including changes in circumstances) and the associated “likelihood” (as defined i n I SO Guide 73:2009, 3. 6.1.1) of occurrence.
risks and opportunities
potential adverse effects (threats) and potential beneficial effects (opportunities)
3.3 Terms related to support and operation
ability to apply knowledge and skills to achieve intended results
information required to be controlled and maintained by an organization (3.1.4) and the medium on which it is contained
Note 1 to entry: Documented information can be in any format and media, and from any source.
Note 2 to entry: Documented information can refer to:
— the environmental management system (3.1.2), including related processes (3.3.5);
— information created in order for the organization to operate (can be referred to as documentation);
— evidence of results achieved (can be referred to as records).
consecutive and interlinked stages of a product (or service) system, from raw material acquisition or generation from natural resources to final disposal
Note 1 to entry: The life cycle stages include acquisition of raw materials, design, production, transportation/
delivery, use, end-of-life treatment and final disposal.
[SOURCE: ISO 14044:2006, 3.1, modified ― The words “(or service)” have been added to the definition and Note 1 to entry has been added.]
make an arrangement where an external organization (3.1.4) performs part of an organization’s function or process (3.3.5)
Note 1 to entry: An external organization is outside the scope of the management system (3.1.1), although the outsourced function or process is within the scope.
set of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into outputs
Note 1 to entry: A process can be documented or not.
3.4 Terms related to performance evaluation and improvement
systematic, independent and documented process (3.3.5) for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria are fulfilled
Note 1 to entry: An internal audit is conducted by the organization (3.1.4) itself, or by an external part y on its behalf.
Note 2 to entry: An audit can be a combined audit (combining t wo or more disciplines).
Note 3 to entry: Independence can be demonstrated by the freedom from responsibility for the activity being audited or freedom from bias and conflict of interest.
Note 4 to entry: “Audit evidence” consists of records, statements of fact or other information which are relevant to the audit criteria and are verifiable; and “audit criteria” are the set of policies, procedures or requirements (3.2.8) used as a reference against which audit evidence is compared, as defined in ISO 19011:2011, 3. 3 and 3. 2 respectively.
fulfilment of a requirement (3.2.8)
non-fulfilment of a requirement (3.2.8)
Note 1 to entry: Nonconformity relates to requirements in this International Standard and additional environmental management system (3.1.2) requirements that an organization (3.1.4) establishes for itself.
action to eliminate the cause of a nonconformity (3.4.3) and to prevent recurrence
Note 1 to entry: There can be more than one cause for a nonconformity.
recurring activity to enhance performance (3.4.10)
Note 1 to entry: Enhancing performance relates to the use of the environmental management system (3.1.2) to enhance environmental performance (3.4.11) consistent with the organization’s (3.1.4) environmental policy (3.1.3).
Note 2 to entry: The activity need not take place in all areas simultaneously, or without interruption.
extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results achieved
measurable representation of the condition or status of operations, management or conditions
determining the status of a system, a process (3.3.5) or an activity
Note 1 to entry: To determine the status, there might be a need to check, supervise or critically observe.
process (3.3.5) to determine a value
Note 1 to entry: Performance can relate either to quantitative or qualitative findings.
Note 2 to entry: Performance can relate to the management of activities, processes (3.3.5), products (including services), systems or organizations (3.1.4).
performance (3.4.10) related to the management of environmental aspects (3.2.2)
Note 1 to entry: For an environmental management system (3.1.2), results can be measured against the
organization’s (3.1.4) environmental policy (3.1.3), environmental objectives (3.2.6) or other criteria, using indicators (3.4.7).
4 Context of the organization
4.1 Understanding the organization and its context
The organization shall determine external and internal issues that are relevant to its purpose and that affect its ability to achieve the intended outcomes of its environmental management system. Such issues shall include environmental conditions being affected by or capable of affecting the organization.
4.2 Understanding the needs and expectations of interested parties
The organization shall determine:
a) the interested parties that are relevant to the environmental management system;
b) the relevant needs and expectations (i.e. requirements) of these interested parties;
c) which of these needs and expectations become its compliance obligations.
4.3 Determining the scope of the environmental management system
The organization shall determine the boundaries and applicability of the environment al management system to establish its scope. When determining this scope, the organization shall consider:
a) the external and internal issues referred to in 4.1;
b) the compliance obligations referred to in 4.2;
c) its organizational units, functions and physical boundaries;
d) its activities, products and services;
e) its authority and ability to exercise control and influence (Outsourced Services).
Once the scope is defined, all activities, products and services of the organization within that scope need to be included in the environmental management system.
The scope shall be maintained as documented information and be available to interested parties.
4.4 Environmental management system
To achieve the intended outcomes, including enhancing its environmental performance, the organization shall establish, implement, maintain and continually improve an environmental management system, including the processes needed and their interactions, in accordance with the requirements of this International Standard.
The organization shall consider the knowledge gained in 4.1 and 4.2 when establishing and maintaining the environmental management system.
5 Leadership (NEW)
5.1 Leadership and commitment
Top management shall demonstrate leadership and commitment with respect to the environmental management system by:
a) taking accountability for the effectiveness of the environmental management system (requires an enhanced awareness of EMS procedures and processes by managers);
b) ensuring that the environmental policy and environmental objectives are established and are compatible with the strategic direction and the context of the organization;
c) ensuring the integration of the environmental management system requirements into the organization’s business processes;
d) ensuring that the resources needed for the environmental management system are available;
e) communicating the importance of effective environmental management and of conforming to the environmental management system requirements;
f) ensuring that the environmental management system achieves its intended outcomes;
g) directing and supporting persons to contribute to the effectiveness of the environmental management system;
h) promoting continual improvement;
i) supporting other relevant management roles to demonstrate their leadership as it applies to their areas of responsibility.
NOTE Reference to “business” in this International Standard can be interpreted broadly to mean those activities that are core to the purposes of the organization’s existence.
5.2 Environmental policy
Top management shall establish, implement and maintain an environmental policy that, within the defined scope of its environmental management system:
a) is appropriate to the purpose and context of the organization, including the nature, scale and environmental impacts of its activities, products and services;
b) provides a framework for set ting environmental objectives;
c) includes a commitment to the protection of the environment, including prevention of pollution and other specific commitment(s) relevant to the context of the organization;
NOTE – Other specific commitment(s) to protect the environment can include sustainable resource use, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and protection of biodiversity and ecosystems.
d) includes a commitment to fulfill its compliance obligations;
e) includes a commitment to continual improvement of the environmental management system to enhance environmental performance.
The environmental policy shall:
— be maintained as documented information;
— be communicated within the organization;
— be available to interested parties.
5.3 Organizational roles, responsibilities and authorities
Top management shall ensure that the responsibilities and authorities for relevant roles are assigned and communicated within the organization. Top management shall assign the responsibility and authority for:
a) ensuring that the environmental management system conforms to the requirements of this International Standard;
b) reporting on the performance of the environment al management system, including environment al performance, to top management.
6.1 Actions to address risks and opportunities
The organization shall establish, implement and maintain the process(es) needed to meet the requirements in 6.1.1 to 6.1.4.
When planning for the environmental management system, the organization shall consider:
a) the issues referred to in 4.1;
b) the requirements referred to in 4.2;
c) the scope of its environmental management system;
and determine the risks and opportunities, related to its environmental aspects (see 6.1.2), compliance obligations (see 6.1.3) and other issues and requirements, identified in 4.1 and 4.2, that need to be addressed to:
— give assurance that the environmental management system can achieve its intended outcomes;
— prevent or reduce undesired effects, including the potential for external environmental conditions to affect the organization;
— achieve continual improvement.
Within the scope of the environmental management system, the organization shall determine potential emergency situations, including those that can have an environmental impact.
The organization shall maintain documented information of its:
— risks and opportunities that need to be addressed;
— process(es) needed in 6.1.1 to 6.1.4, to the extent necessary to have confidence they are carried out as planned.
6.1.2 Environmental aspects
Within the defined scope of the environmental management system, the organization shall determine the environmental aspects of its activities, products and services that it can control and those that it can influence, and their associated environmental impacts, considering a life cycle perspective.
When determining environmental aspects, the organization shall take into account:
a) change, including planned or new developments, and new or modified activities, products and services;
b) abnormal conditions and reasonably foreseeable emergency situations.
The organization shall determine those aspects that have or can have a significant environmental impact, i.e. significant environmental aspects, by using established criteria.
The organization shall communicate its significant environmental aspects among the various levels and functions of the organization, as appropriate.
The organization shall maintain documented information of its:
— environmental aspects and associated environmental impacts;
— criteria used to determine its significant environmental aspects;
— significant environmental aspects.
NOTE – Significant environmental aspects can result in risks and opportunities associated with either adverse environmental impacts (threats) or beneficial environmental impacts (opportunities).
6.1.3 Compliance obligations
The organization shall:
a) determine and have access to the compliance obligations related to its environmental aspects;
b) determine how these compliance obligations apply to the organization;
c) take these compliance obligations into account when establishing, implementing, maintaining and continually improving its environmental management system.
The organization shall maintain documented information of its compliance obligations.
NOTE Compliance obligations can result in risks and opportunities to the organization.
6.1.4 Planning action
The organization shall plan:
a) to take actions to address its:
1) significant environmental aspects;
2) compliance obligations;
3) risks and opportunities identified in 6.1.1;
b) how to:
1) integrate and implement the actions into its environmental management system processes (see 6.2, Clause 7, Clause 8 and 9.1), or other business processes;
2) evaluate the effectiveness of these actions (see 9.1).
When planning these actions, the organization shall consider its technological options and its financial, operational and business requirements.
6.2 Environmental objectives and planning to achieve them
6.2.1 Environmental objectives
The organization shall establish environmental objectives at relevant functions and levels, taking into account the organization’s significant environmental aspects and associated compliance obligations, and considering its risks and opportunities.
The environmental objectives shall be:
a) consistent with the environmental policy;
b) measurable (if practicable);
e) updated as appropriate.
The organization shall maintain documented information on the environmental objectives.
6.2.2 Planning actions to achieve environmental objectives
When planning how to achieve its environmental objectives, the organization shall determine:
a) what will be done;
b) what resources will be required;
c) who will be responsible;
d) when it will be completed;
e) how the results will be evaluated, including indicators for monitoring progress toward achievement of its measurable environmental objectives (see 9.1.1).
The organization shall consider how actions to achieve its environmental objectives can be integrated into the organization’s business processes.
The organization shall determine and provide the resources needed for the establishment, implementation, maintenance and continual improvement of the environmental management system.
The organization shall:
a) determine the necessary competence of person(s) doing work under its control that affects its environmental performance and its abilit y to fulfil it s compliance obligations;
b) ensure that these persons are competent on the basis of appropriate education, training or experience;
c) determine training needs associated with its environmental aspects and its environmental management system;
d) where applicable, take actions to acquire the necessary competence, and evaluate the effectiveness of the actions taken
NOTE Applicable actions can include, for example, the provision of training to, the mentoring of, or the reassignment of currently employed persons; or the hiring or contracting of competent persons.
The organization shall retain appropriate documented information as evidence of competence.
The organization shall ensure that persons doing work under the organization’s control are aware of:
a) the environment al policy;
b) the significant environmental aspects and related actual or potential environmental impacts associated with their work;
c) their contribution to the effectiveness of the environment al management system, including the benefits of enhanced environmental performance;
d) the implications of not conforming with the environmental management system requirements, including not fulfilling the organization’s compliance obligations.
The organization shall establish, implement and maintain the process(es) needed for internal and external communications relevant to the environmental management system, including:
a) on what it will communicate;
b) when to communicate;
c) with whom to communicate;
d) how to communicate.
When establishing its communication process (es), the organization shall:
— take into account its compliance obligations;
— ensure that environmental information communicated is consistent with information generated
within the environmental management system, and is reliable.
The organization shall respond to relevant communications on its environmental management system.
The organization shall retain documented information as evidence of its communications, as appropriate.
7.4.2 Internal communication
The organization shall:
a) internally communicate information relevant to the environmental management system among the various levels and functions of the organization, including changes to the environmental management system, as appropriate;
b) ensure its communication process(es) enable(s) persons doing work under the organization’s control to contribute to continual improvement.
7.4.3 External communication
The organization shall externally communicate information relevant to the environment al management system, as established by the organization’s communication process(es) and as required by its compliance obligations
7.5 Documented information
The organization’s environmental management system shall include:
a) documented information required by this International Standard;
b) documented information determined by the organization as being necessary for the effectiveness of the environmental management system.
NOTE The extent of documented information for an environmental management system can differ from one organization to another due to:
— the size of organization and its type of activities, processes, products and services;
— the need to demonstrate fulfilment of its compliance obligations;
— the complexity of processes and their interactions;
— the competence of persons doing work under the organization’s control.
7.5.2 Creating and updating
When creating and updating documented information, the organization shall ensure appropriate:
a) identification and description (e.g. a title, date, author, or reference number);
b) format (e.g. language, software version, graphics) and media (e.g. paper, electronic);
c) review and approval for suitability and adequacy.
7.5.3 Control of documented information
Documented information required by the environmental management system and by this International Standard shall be controlled to ensure:
a) it is available and suitable for use, where and when it is needed;
b) it is adequately protected (e.g. from loss of confidentiality, improper use, or loss of integrity).
For the control of documented information, the organization shall address the following activities as applicable:
— distribution, access, retrieval and use;
— storage and preservation, including preservation of legibility;
— control of changes (e.g. version control);
— retention and disposition.
Documented information of external origin determined by the organization to be necessary for the
planning and operation of the environmental management system shall be identified, as appropriate, and controlled.
NOTE Access can imply a decision regarding the permission to view the documented information only, or the permission and authority to view and change the documented information.
8.1 Operational planning and control
The organization shall establish, implement, control and maintain the processes needed to meet environment al management system requirements, and to implement the actions identified in 6.1 and 6.2, by:
— establishing operating criteria for the process(es);
— implementing control of the process(es), in accordance with the operating criteria.
NOTE Controls can include engineering controls and procedures. Controls can be implemented following a hierarchy (e.g. elimination, substitution, administrative) and can be used individually or in combination.
The organization shall control planned changes and review the consequences of unintended changes, taking action to mitigate any adverse effects, as necessary.
The organization shall ensure that outsourced processes are controlled or influenced. The type and extent of control or influence to be applied to the process(es) shall be defined within the environmental management system.
Consistent with a life cycle perspective, the organization shall:
a) establish controls, as appropriate, to ensure that its environmental requirement(s) is (are) addressed in the design and development process for the product or service, considering each life cycle stage;
b) determine its environmental requirement(s) for the procurement of products and services, as appropriate;
c) communicate its relevant environment al requirement(s) to external providers, including contractors;
d) consider the need to provide information about potential significant environmental impacts associated with the transportation or delivery, use, end-of-life treatment and final disposal of its products and services. (IMDS)
The organization shall maintain documented information to the extent necessary to have confidence that the processes have been carried out as planned.
8.2 Emergency preparedness and response
The organization shall establish, implement and maintain the process(es) needed to prepare for and respond to potential emergency situations identified in 6.1.1.
The organization shall:
a) prepare to respond by planning actions to prevent or mitigate adverse environmental impacts from emergency situations;
b) respond to actual emergency situations;
c) take action to prevent or mitigate the consequences of emergency situations, appropriate to the magnitude of the emergency and the potential environmental impact;
d) periodically test the planned response actions, where practicable;
e) periodically review and revise the process(es) and planned response actions, in particular after the occurrence of emergency situations or tests;
f) provide relevant information and training related to emergency preparedness and response, as appropriate, to relevant interested parties, including persons working under its control.
The organization shall maintain documented information to the extent necessary to have confidence that the process(es) is (are) carried out as planned.
9 Performance evaluation
9.1 Monitoring, measurement, analysis and evaluation
The organization shall monitor, measure, analyse and evaluate its environmental performance.
The organization shall determine:
a) what needs to be monitored and measured;
b) the methods for monitoring, measurement, analysis and evaluation, as applicable, to ensure valid results;
c) the criteria against which the organization will evaluate its environmental performance, and appropriate indicators;
d) when the monitoring and measuring shall be performed;
e) when the results from monitoring and measurement shall be analysed and evaluated.
The organization shall ensure that calibrated or verified monitoring and measurement equipment is used and maintained, as appropriate.
The organization shall evaluate its environmental performance and the effectiveness of the environmental management system.
The organization shall communicate relevant environment al performance information both internally and externally, as identified in its communication process(es) and as required by its compliance obligations
The organization shall retain appropriate documented information as evidence of the monitoring, measurement, analysis and evaluation results.
9.1.2 Evaluation of compliance
The organization shall establish, implement and maintain the process(es) needed to evaluate fulfilment of its compliance obligations.
The organization shall:
a) determine the frequency that compliance will be evaluated;
b) evaluate compliance and take action if needed;
c) maintain knowledge and understanding of its compliance status.
The organization shall retain documented information as evidence of the compliance evaluation result(s).
9.2 Internal audit
The organization shall conduct internal audits at planned intervals to provide information on whether the environmental management system:
a) conforms to:
1) the organization’s own requirements for its environmental management system;
2) the requirements of this International Standard;
b) is effectively implemented and maintained.
9.2.2 Internal audit program
The organization shall establish, implement and maintain (an) internal audit program(s), including the frequency, methods, responsibilities, planning requirements and reporting of its internal audits.
When establishing the internal audit program, the organization shall take into consideration the environmental importance of the processes concerned, changes affecting the organization and the results of previous audits.
The organization shall:
a) define the audit criteria and scope for each audit;
b) select auditors and conduct audits to ensure objectivity and the impartiality of the audit process;
c) ensure that the results of the audits are reported to relevant management.
The organization shall retain documented information as evidence of the implementation of the audit program and the audit results.
9.3 Management review
Top management shall review the organization’s environmental management system, at planned intervals, to ensure its continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness.
The management review shall include consideration of:
a) the status of actions from previous management reviews;
b) changes in:
1) external and internal issues that are relevant to the environmental management system (CONTEXT see 4.1);
2) the needs and expectations of interested parties, including compliance obligations;
3) its significant environmental aspects;
4) risks and opportunities;
c) the extent to which environmental objectives have been achieved;
d) information on the organization’s environmental performance, including trends in:
1) nonconformities and corrective actions;
2) monitoring and measurement results;
3) fulfilment of its compliance obligations;
4) audit results;
e) adequacy of resources;
f) relevant communication(s) from interested parties, including complaints;
g) opportunities for continual improvement.
The outputs of the management review shall include:
— conclusions on the continuing suit ability, adequacy and effectiveness of the environmental
— decisions related to continual improvement opportunities;
— decisions related to any need for changes to the environmental management system, including
— actions, if needed, when environmental objectives have not been achieved;
— opportunities to improve integration of the environmental management system with other business
processes, if needed;
— any implications for the strategic direction of the organization.
The organization shall retain documented information as evidence of the results of management reviews.
The organization shall determine opportunities for improvement (see 9.1, 9.2 and 9.3) and implement necessary actions to achieve the intended outcomes of it s environmental management system.
10.2 Nonconformity and corrective action
When a nonconformity occurs, the organization shall:
a) react to the nonconformity and, as applicable:
1) take action to control and correct it;
2) deal with the consequences, including mitigating adverse environmental impacts;
b) evaluate the need for action to eliminate the causes of the nonconformity, in order that it does not recur or occur elsewhere, by:
1) reviewing the nonconformity;
2) determining the causes of the nonconformity;
3) determining if similar nonconformities exist, or could potentially occur;
c) implement any action needed;
d) review the effectiveness of any corrective action taken;
e) make changes to the environmental management system, if necessary.
ISO 14001 consultant will help interpret these instructions.
Corrective actions shall be appropriate to the significance of the effects of the nonconformities encountered, including the environmental impact(s).
The organization shall retain documented information as evidence of:
— the nature of the nonconformities and any subsequent actions taken;
— the results of any corrective action.
10.3 Continual improvement
The organization shall continually improve the suitability, adequacy and effectiveness of the environmental management system to enhance environmental performance.
Notes – these requirements include the life cycle perspective, intended out comes and risks and opportunities. We provide ISO 14001:2015 training and ISO 45001:2016 training programs. Look for ISO 14001 consultants.